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Section 1. Definition. The term
"local government units" includes, but is not limited to, counties
and incorporated cities and towns. Other local government units may
be established by law.
Section 2. Counties. The counties of
the state are those that exist on the date of ratification of this
constitution. No county boundary may be changed or county seat
transferred until approved by a majority of those voting on the
question in each county affected.
Section 3. Forms of government. (1)
The legislature shall provide methods for governing local government
units and procedures for incorporating, classifying, merging,
consolidating, and dissolving such units, and altering their
boundaries. The legislature shall provide such optional or
alternative forms of government that each unit or combination of
units may adopt, amend, or abandon an optional or alternative form
by a majority of those voting on the question.
(2) One optional form of county government includes, but is not
limited to, the election of three county commissioners, a clerk and
recorder, a clerk of district court, a county attorney, a sheriff, a
treasurer, a surveyor, a county superintendent of schools, an
assessor, a coroner, and a public administrator. The terms,
qualifications, duties, and compensation of those offices shall be
provided by law. The Board of county commissioners may consolidate
two or more such offices. The Boards of two or more counties may
provide for a joint office and for the election of one official to
perform the duties of any such office in those counties.
Section 4. General powers. (1) A
local government unit without self-government powers has the
following general powers:
(a) An incorporated city or town has the powers of a municipal
corporation and legislative, administrative, and other powers
provided or implied by law.
(b) A county has legislative, administrative, and other powers
provided or implied by law.
(c) Other local government units have powers provided by law.
(2) The powers of incorporated cities and towns and counties shall
be liberally construed.
Section 5. Self-government charters.
(1) The legislature shall provide procedures permitting a local
government unit or combination of units to frame, adopt, amend,
revise, or abandon a self-government charter with the approval of a
majority of those voting on the question. The procedures shall not
require approval of a charter by a legislative body.
(2) If the legislature does not provide such procedures by July 1,
1975, they may be established by election either:
(a) Initiated by petition in the local government unit or
combination of units; or
(b) Called by the governing body of the local government unit or
combination of units.
(3) Charter provisions establishing executive, legislative, and
administrative structure and organization are superior to statutory
Section 6. Self-government powers. A
local government unit adopting a self-government charter may
exercise any power not prohibited by this constitution, law, or
charter. This grant of self-government powers may be extended to
other local government units through optional forms of government
provided for in section 3.
Section 7. Intergovernmental cooperation.
(1) Unless prohibited by law or charter, a local government unit may
(a) cooperate in the exercise of any function, power, or
(b) share the services of any officer or facilities with,
(c) transfer or delegate any function, power, responsibility, or
duty of any officer to one or more other local government units,
school districts, the state, or the United States.
(2) The qualified electors of a local government unit may, by
initiative or referendum, require it to do so.
Section 8. Initiative and referendum.
The legislature shall extend the initiative and referendum powers
reserved to the people by the constitution to the qualified electors
of each local government unit.
Section 9. Voter review of local
government. (1) The legislature shall, within four years of the
ratification of this constitution, provide procedures requiring each
local government unit or combination of units to review its
structure and submit one alternative form of government to the
qualified electors at the next general or special election.
(2) The legislature shall require an election in each local
government to determine whether a local government will undertake a
review procedure once every ten years after the first election.
Approval by a majority of those voting in the decennial general
election on the question of undertaking a local government review is
necessary to mandate the election of a local government study
commission. Study commission members shall be elected during any
regularly scheduled election in local governments mandating their
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